It is known that strokes and heart attacks occur 2 to 4 times as frequently in diabetics than in non diabetics. An article that appeared in an August 8, 2018 edition of the New...
Type 2 diabetes is due to insulin resistance and eventual beta cell failure. These people have high insulin levels on presentation and are generally obese. Their tissues are insensitive to their insulin and the beta cells must produce insulin at a high rate to prevent the development of diabetes. They are mostly obese, may have high blood pressure, high waist to hip ratio, elevated triglycerides, low HDL and urine protein. Prior to the development of diabetes in theses people their fasting sugars may be between 100 and 125; normal fasting is below 100. Two hours after eating their sugars may range from above 140 to 199. Diabetes is diagnosed when fasting sugar is 126 or over or the two hour after eating sugar aboive 200.
As the diabetes in type 2 disease progresses the beta cell stops producing insulin and these people require insulin for treatment. Prior to that time oral agents are used to treat as well as lifestyle changes which includes low carb, low-fat diets for weight loss and exercise to at least 150 minutes a week. In pre-diabetes, these lifestyle changes may delay the onset of diabetes and the eventual development of the many complications of the disease.
It is very important to treat both type 1 and 2 early in the disease to reduce the rate of complications. As part of treatment program attention is paid not only to the blood sugar but to treatment of high blood pressure, cholesterol, overweight or obesity and to cessation of smoking.