Congenital scoliosis: Caused by a birth defect and occurs in only 1/10000 newborns and would be obvious from birth.
Neuromuscular scoliosis: Caused by disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and muscular system.
Degenerative scoliosis or adult onset scoliosis: This type is unique because it is adult onset scoliosis, compared to the other types, which mostly occur in children. This type is frequent in individuals over the age of 65.
Idiopathic scoliosis: This type is the most common form of scoliosis, over 80% of all scoliosis cases, and usually affects children between the ages of 10 to 18. Idiopathic scoliosis is more common in adolescent girls. These curves progress as the child ages and slow down when they have hit maturity. Unfortunately, the cause of idiopathic scoliosis is unknown. There are many different theories and assumptions behind this condition but research has yet to find any of them conclusive.
There is not much you can do for the first three types of scoliosis (in my opinion), but you can possibly reduce the risks for the idiopathic scoliosis. Check your son’s back pack! Backpacks that are too heavy can cause a lot of problems for kids, like back, neck, shoulder pain, and poor posture. Your child’s back pack should weigh NO MORE than 10-15% of his body weight. Any more, can cause undue stress on the spine and surrounding musculature which is harmful to a developing spine, as the spine will compensate for the added stress. It is especially important that he uses both straps and does not just carry it over one shoulder as this will transfer all of the weight in the bag to one side of the spine instead of being distributed equally or bilaterally. Over time, that could lead to unbalanced musculature and cause some curvature to the strong side.
Unfortunately, I have no definitive answer for you on how to prevent “scoliosis”, but I would suggest that you find a good pediatric chiropractor in your area and have your child checked periodically. Kids are so resilient and rarely need much care to correct any misalignments that they may have developed. That being said, it is much easier to correct and maintain ones spine at an early age than it is to correct later on in life if let go.