A chance at fatherhood
Multiple assisted reproductive technologies have been developed which can assist men lacking a vas deferens in fertilizing a woman. They have the same basic idea, extracting the sperm from the otherwise infertile man’s testicles and then implanting that sperm in his partner.
The three methods are known as microsurgical epidydimal sperm aspiration, percutaneous epidydimal sperm aspiration, and testicular sperm extraction. MESA, PESA, and TESE.
Microsurgical epidydimal sperm aspiration involves using an operating microscope to make tiny incisions to extract sperm from the epidydimal tubes. Percutaneous epidydimal sperm aspiration is similar, except it involves the usage of a tiny needle to collect the sperm. Testicular sperm extraction removes small amounts of tissue from the testicles and acquires the sperm that way.
Typically, a microscope is utilized to ensure that the sperm so acquired are functional enough to be able to fertilize an egg. MESA is the most advanced technique, and is the most effective, but also requires the most skill and may be the most expensive.
All methods are performed while under a local anesthetic, so while talking about the procedures may make you feel uncomfortable, you do not feel anything while actually undergoing the procedure.