Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often referred to as ADHS is a detrimental brain condition characterized by a continuous pattern of impulsivity, inattention or hyperactivity. All these symptoms interrupt the patient’s developmental growth:
- Impulsivity - implies that an individual undertakes quick actions without thinking, and this could bring potential harm to them. They may also demand swift rewards without tolerating any delays. An impulsive patient might be socially intrusive and always interfere with other people’s conversations or make vital decisions without factoring consequential effects.
- Inattention - this means the individual wanders off task, has difficulty focusing, is always disorganized, and lacks persistence. These challenges occur involuntarily.
- Hyperactivity: this implies that the patient is constantly moving from one place to another, even when it isn’t necessary. In adults, excessive restlessness could be more visible.
Signs and Symptoms
The key symptoms associated with ADHD are impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Some patients experience tragic problems with their personal behaviors, while others encounter both impulsivity and inattentiveness.
For young children, the commonest symptom is hyperactivity. Although it’s normal to be unfocused, impulsive, or inattentive, people suffering from ADHD experience more severe and frequent symptoms.
Patients who are inattentive may often:
- Be forgetful about their daily routines like errands, keeping appointments, chores, and returning calls.
- Have trouble sustaining attention in conversations, lengthy reading, or lectures.
- Overlook or miss important details and always make careless mistakes in school or at home.
- Experience difficulties in organizing tasks and activities.
- Be easily sidetracked by unrelated stimuli or thoughts.
- Void or dislike duties that necessitate sustained mental effort.
- Find it difficult waiting for their turn
- Talk non-stop
- Fidget or squirm on their seats
- Are unable to play with others or partake in hobbies quietly
- Leave whenever they’re required to be seated
- Blurt out and give answers even when the questions haven’t been completed
- Excessive restlessness
- Are constantly in motion
- Interrupt others during activities, conversations, or games
Test and Diagnosis
The diagnosis and prognosis of ADHD require a detailed evaluation by a medical specialist like psychiatrists, pediatricians, or psychologists with desirable professionalism in ADHD. For a diagnosis to be performed, the signs and symptoms of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity should be persistent or chronic, trigger slowed developmental growth, and impair the patient’s normal functioning. The physician will also ascertain that the symptoms are not as a result of another psychiatric condition.
Many children living with ADHD receive a comprehensive prognosis during their early school years. For adolescents and adults, a diagnosis will only be viable when the ADHD symptoms have lasted more than twelve years. ADHD symptoms can become visible between the age of three and six and can become persistent throughout adolescence or even adulthood. Sometimes, ADHD symptoms can be confused with disciplinary or emotional disorders. Adults having undiagnosed ADHD might have a long history of failed relationships, poor academic performance, or difficulties at work.
• Family history
• Brain injuries
• Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking
• Low birth weight
• Exposure to excessive toxins during pregnancy or at a young age
ADHD is very common among males as compared to the females, and those females suffering from the condition are often susceptible to inattention. Remember, people having ADHD could be ailing from other conditions like anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, or substance abuse. That’s why a confident diagnosis is always important.