Allergic rhinitis is caused by exposure to a specific allergen in a predisposed individual. This leads to activation of inflammatory cells that release inflammatory mediators causing the symptoms.
Symptoms of hay fever are similar to those of viral rhinitis but are usually persistent and may show seasonal variation.
- Sneezing, nasal discharge, itching, nasal congestion and obstruction.
- Transverse nasal crease may appear as people may wipe their nose in an upward motion.
- Nasal symptoms are often accompanied by eye symptoms such as irritation, pruritus, conjunctival redness, and tearing.
- A positive family history of atopy or allergy may be present.
- Patients may have troubling nasal discharge in response to numerous nasal stimuli, including warm or cold air and odors.
- Complications of allergic rhinitis include otitis media and sinusitis.