Healthy Living

The Early and Late Manifestations of Lupus

Infectious agents, hormones and environmental estrogen

Infectious agents

  • Bacterial DNA/endotoxins
  • Viruses like Epstein-Barr viruses(5)

Hormones and environmental estrogen

  • Hormonal replacement therapy
  • Oral contraceptive pills

This is by no way a complete list of environmental risk factors, but just those which have commonly found to be associated with lupus.