Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed vessels in the anus and rectum. They may result from straining during bowel movements or from increased pressure on these veins during pregnancy. Hemorrhoids may be located inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids or under the skin around the anus (external hemorrhoids).
Hemorrhoids are common ailments. By age 50, about half of adults have had to deal with the itching, discomfort and bleeding that can signal the presence of hemorrhoids. Fortunately, many effective options are available to treat hemorrhoids. Most people can get relief from symptoms by using home treatments and making lifestyle changes.
Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids may include:
Painless bleeding during bowel movements — you might notice small amounts of bright red blood on your toilet tissue or in the toilet bowl
itching or irritation in your anal region
pain or discomfort
swelling around your anus
a lump near your anus, which may be sensitive or painful
Leakage of feces
Hemorrhoid symptoms usually depend on the location. Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum. You usually can't see or feel these hemorrhoids, and they usually don't cause discomfort. But straining or irritation when passing stool can damage a hemorrhoid's delicate surface and cause it to bleed. Occasionally, straining can push an internal hemorrhoid through the anal opening. This is known as a protruding or prolapsed hemorrhoid and can cause pain and irritation.
External hemorrhoids are under the skin around your anus. When irritated, external hemorrhoids can itch or bleed. Sometimes blood may pool in an external hemorrhoid and form a clot (thrombus), resulting in severe pain, swelling and inflammation
if one is older than the age of 50 and haven't had a recent colonoscopy.
In most cases, treatment of hemorrhoids involves steps that an individual can take on their own, this include lifestyle changes. However, some cases may require medications or surgical procedures. If the hemorrhoids produce mild discomfort, the doctor may suggest over-the-counter creams, ointments suppositories or pads. If a blood clot within an external hemorrhoid, the doctor can remove the clot with a simple incision, which may provide prompt relief.
In case of persistent bleeding, the doctor may recommend another minimally invasive procedure. These treatments can be done in the doctor's office or other outpatient setting.
These treatments include
Rubber band ligation, which involves the doctor placing one or two tiny rubber bands around the the base of the internal hemorrhoid to cut off its circulation.
Injection or sclerotherapy, which involves the doctor injecting a chemical solution into the hemorrhoids in order to shrink it.
Coagulation techniques use lasers or infrared light or heat. They cause small, bleeding, internal hemorrhoids to harden and shrivel.
Surgical procedures can also be incorporated into the treatment process. Hemorrhoid removal can be performed.
Hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective way to treat severe hemorrhoids.
Complications may include temporary difficulty emptying the bladder and urinary tract infections associated with this problem. Another procedure that can be performed is called hemorrhoid stapling or stapled hemorrhoidectomy. In this procedure, blood is blocked from flowing to hemorrhoid tissue.
Compared with hemorrhoidectomy, stapling has been associated with a greater risk of recurrence and rectal prolapse, in which the rectum protrude from the anus. Therefore, it is very advisable to talk with a doctor in order to choose the best option.
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