The cause of granulomatosis with polyangiitis is not known.
It appears to develop after an infection or any inflammatory conditions or causing events which may trigger an abnormal reaction from the immune system.
This may cause the formation of inflamed or constricted blood vessels and harmful inflammatory tissue mass known as granulomas.
This may cause the destruction of the normal tissues and narrowed blood vessels which reduce the amount of blood and oxygen that gets to the body tissues and organs.
4 Making a Diagnosis
Making a diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis is done by performing several tests.
The doctor will get to find out about the signs and symptoms.
A physical exam may be performed and medical history. A diagnostic test may also be used and procedures followed in the detection of the conditions associated with the disease.
They may include:
Blood tests which look for information on signs of inflammation by screening for the levels of c – reactive proteins or high levels of erythrocytes sedimentations.
Test for presence of antibodies for neutrophils and other cytoplasmic antibodies test may be useful.
Blood test can also be used for detection of anemia which occurs commonly in people with this medical condition.
Moreover, urine test can be used for detection of red blood cells or more proteins which is an indication of kidney damage.
Imaging tests for the chest may be applied to diagnose for any signs of damage in the blood vessels located in the lungs and Kidney. X-rays, CT and MRI can be applied.
Biopsies can be collected from the damaged organs to confirm the presence of granulomas polyangiitis.
You and your doctor together will determine the best course of treatment for granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
It is necessary that you talk with your medical doctor on the best drugs and combination of drugs that will best serve you.
It will also be best to avoid the side effects. The form of treatment will depend on how the organs are affected. The doctor will prescribe corticosteroids as a way of suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation of the blood vessels.
Several other drugs may be used to lower the immune system and cause inflammation such a cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and methotrexate. Tituximab can also be used under severe cases and serves as an equivalent of cyclophosphamide.
When the condition is under control, drugs may also be used to prevent relapse. Drugs may also be used to reduce the effects of the treatments administered such as lung infections for sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, bisphosphonates for osteoporosis and manage symptoms of Folate depletion.
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