Adderall is a combination drug containing salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class. These stimulants affect chemicals in the brain and nerves which contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. It contains amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, and dextroamphetamine sulfate, and is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a disorder characterized by the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and present themselves before the age of 7.
Adderall is available in seven formulations, namely:
- Adderall 5 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 1.25 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 1.25 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 1.25 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 1.25 milligram.
- Adderall 7.5 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 1.875 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 1.875 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 1.875 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 1.875 milligram.
- Adderall 10 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 2.5 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 2.5 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 2.5 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 2.5 milligram.
- Adderall 12.5 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 3.125 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 3.125 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 3.125 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 3.125 milligram.
- Adderall 15 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 3.75 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 3.75 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 3.75 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 3.75 milligram.
- Adderall 20 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 5 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 5 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 5 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 5 milligram.
- Adderall 30 mg containing amphetamine aspartate monohydrate 7.5 milligram, amphetamine sulfate 7.5 milligram, dextroamphetamine saccharate 7.5 milligram, and dextroamphetamine sulfate 7.5 milligram.
Before using Adderall, thoroughly read the product information leaflet provided. This drug is to be taken by mouth, usually when you first wake up in the morning or as instructed by your doctor.
Additional doses should be spaced 4-6 hours apart. Do not take this drug within or less than 6 hours before bedtime because it may lead to trouble falling and staying asleep.
Do not chew, crush or break an Adderall extended-release capsule. Take it as a whole. If you find issues in swallowing, you may open the capsule and sprinkle the medicine into a spoonful of applesauce. Swallow it right away without chewing. Do not save the mixture for later use.
Store the medicine at room temperature, away from moistness, heat, and light.
Take this medication as prescribed by your doctor. The doctor will base dose adjustment based on your response and on your condition.
Improper use of this medicine can also lead to death or serious side effects on the heart.
Once you start taking Adderall, it could form a daily habit that might be difficult to break. Do not share this medicine with another person, especially a person with a history of drug addiction or abuse.
Keep track of the amount of medicine being used from each bottle. Since Adderall is a potentially abusive drug, you should be aware if someone is using your medicine improperly or without prescription.
While you are on Adderall, the doctor will keep tabs on your progress at regular visits. They will check your blood pressure, heart rate, height, and weight. Your doctor may then change the dosage based on your monitoring to ensure the best results. Avoid taking this medicine in larger or smaller amounts, or for longer than recommended.
Improper use of this medicine can also lead to death or serious side effects on the heart.
Once you start taking Adderall, it could form a daily habit that might be difficult to break. Do not share this medicine with another person, especially a person with a history of drug addiction or abuse. Keep track of the amount of medicine being used from each bottle. Since Adderall has potential for abuse, you should be aware if someone is using your medicine improperly or without prescription.
The below is indicated for patients suffering from narcolepsy.
Adult dose: The initial dose would be 10mg orally every day first thing in the morning. This daily dosage can be increased by the doctor in increments of 10mg at weekly intervals up to 60mg daily in two to three divided doses. The first dose should be taken in the morning and additional doses can be taken in a gap of four to six hours. If there are any reactions to the dose, check with your doctor for changes in the dosage limit.
Kids between the age of six to twelve years: The initial dose would be 5mg orally every day first thing in the morning. This would then be raised in increments of 5mg at weekly intervals until the desired results are obtained. The first dose should be taken in the morning and the additional doses can be taken in a gap of four to six hours. If there are any reactions to the dose, check with your doctor for changes in the dosage limit.
Kids above 12 years old: The initial dose would be 10mg orally every day first thing in the morning. This would then be raised in increments of 5mg at weekly intervals until the desired results are obtained.
The below is indicated for patients suffering from ADD.
Adult dose: Adults who are starting Adderall extended-release capsule treatment for the first time or switching from a different medication to Adderall are recommended 20mg per day.
Kids between 3 to 5 years: The initial tablet dose would be 2.5mg orally every day in the morning. This would then be raised in increments of 2.5mg at weekly intervals until the optimal results are obtained.
Kids above 6 years: The initial tablet dose would be 5mg orally once or twice every day in the morning. This would then be raised in increments of 5mg at weekly intervals until the optimal results are obtained.
Kids between 6 to 12 years: The initial dose would be 5mg to 10mg orally once every day in the morning. This would then be raised in increments of 5mg to 10mg at weekly. The maximum dosage limit can go up to 30mg once daily.
Young adults between 13 to 17 years: The initial dose would be 10mg once a day every morning. This can be later increased to a maximum of 20mg once a day after a week if the attention deficit disorder symptoms are not controlled.
Adderall may interact with the following drugs:
- MAO inhibitors such as isocarboxazid, linezolid, methylene blue, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, rasagiline, selegiline, and tranylcypromine
- Tricyclic antidepressants such as nortriptyline and imipramine
- SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine
- SSNRIs such as venlafaxine
- Alpha blockers such as prazosin
- Certain antihistamines such as diphenhydramine
- Beta blockers such as atenolol or metoprolol
- Drugs for high blood pressure such as clonidine, guanabenz and methyldopa
- Antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine/haloperidol or lithium
- Certain pain medicines such as meperidine and propoxyphene
- Certain anti-seizure drugs such as ethosuximide, phenytoin and phenobarbital
- Stimulants such as norepinephrine and phenylephrine
- Veratrum alkaloids such as cevadine and veratridine
- Ammonium chloride
- Anti-ulcer medicine such asfamotidine and ranitidine
- Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole and lansoprazole
- Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide
- Fruit juices
- Glutamic acid
- Sodium acid phosphate
- Sodium bicarbonate
- Diuretics, including some thiazides
- Isoniazid (INH)
- Phenothiazines such as thioridazine
Side effects of Adderall
Watch out for signs of allergic reactions such as:
Since Adderall affects growth in children, inform your doctor if your child is not growing at the normal rate throughout the course of Adderall treatment.
Common side-effects of Adderall:
- Uneven and fast heart rate
- Dryness in mouth
- Sudden loss of appetite
- Sudden weight loss or gain
- Mood swings
- Loss of strength
Severe side effects of Adderall:
- Trouble breathing or chest pain
- Feeling cold or sudden numbness
- Changes in vision and skin color
- Pain in muscles or feeling of tenderness or weakness
- Unexplained fever
- Seeing or hearing things which are not real
- Changes in mood and behavior
- Bladder problems or pain in that area
Frequent urge to urinate or pain while urinating
Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any of the following conditions:
- Allergy to Amphetamine or Dextroamphetamine or to other sympathomimetic drugs such as epinephrine or pseudoephedrine
- Certain mood conditions such as agitation or psychosis
- Heart or blood vessel disease such as irregular heartbeat, coronary artery disease, angina, heart failure, and cardiomyopathy
- Problems with heart structure, such as valve problems
- History of heart attack or stroke
- Moderate or severe high blood pressure or hypertension
- Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
- A certain eye problem such as glaucoma
- Personal or family history of regular use or abuse of drugs or alcohol
- Personal or family history of uncontrolled movements or outbursts of words/sounds such as due to Tourette's syndrome
- Family history of sudden death, irregular heartbeat or rhythm, mild high blood pressure (hypertension), kidney disease, and liver disease
- Family or personal history of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, psychotic disorder, and suicidal thoughts
- Pregnancy or lactation: Taking Adderall can cause premature delivery, withdrawal symptoms in the baby, or low weight in the baby. Also avoid breastfeeding the baby if you using this medicine since amphetamine and dextroamphetamine can pass into breast milk and cause harm to the nursing baby.
- Aggressive and severe anxiety
- Problems of blood circulations in hands or feet
- Adderall is should not be given to anyone younger than six years of age
Overdose of Adderall
Urgent medical attention is required if a person experiences an Adderall overdose. One can identify symptoms of overdose such as tremor, restlessness, muscle pain and twitches, being very aggressive, overall weakness, hallucinations, going out of breath, confusion, and panic attacks. These would then be followed by tiredness and depression.