Dazidox

1 What is Dazidox?

Brand: Dazidox, Eth-Oxydose, Oxaydo, OxyCONTIN, OxyCONTIN CR, Oxydose, Oxyfast, Oxy IR, Roxicodone, Roxicodone Intensol

Generic: Oxycodone

Dazidox is usually used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It belongs to the group of medicines called opioid or narcotic analgesics. It acts mainly on the central nervous system (CNS) and smooth muscle to relieve pain.

It binds to opiate receptors in the CNS altering pain perception and response. Though dull, poorly localized visceral pain is relieved better than sharply defined somatic pain; higher doses can migrate even severe pain; the degree of analgesia increasing with dose. The associated reactions to intense pain (e.g., anxiety, fear, distress) are also dampened.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription. This product is available in the following dosage forms:

  • Capsule
  • Tablet
  • Tablet, Extended Release
  • Solution

2 What to Know Before Using

Before using Dazidox, you must know all about the risks and complications associated with it. The suitable drug therapy is usually chosen by a doctor with the active participation of the patient.

There are some important factors such as drug interactions, the presence of any metabolic impairment, history of hypersensitivity reaction, pregnancy, lactation etc. which may alter the desired therapeutic effects of a medicine.

Sometimes the presence of other health disorders affects the beneficial effects of this medicine and even may cause serious toxic effects. If you have had any allergic reactions to any medicine then you must tell your doctor about that.

The use of oxycodone is contraindicated in those who are hypersensitive to this drug or any of the ingredients of the formulation. Further, this drug should not be used in respiratory depression, acute or severe asthma, paralytic ileus, obstructive airway disease, acute liver disease, comatose states, increased intracranial pressure, and acute alcoholism.

Make sure you inform your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Acute or severe asthma
  • Addison's disease (adrenal gland problem)
  • Brain tumor or history of head injuries
  • Cardiovascular disorders (e.g., hypotension)
  • Cancer of the esophagus or colon
  • Central nervous system (CNS) depression
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Drug dependence, especially with narcotics
  • Enlarged prostate (BPH, prostatic hypertrophy)
  • Gallbladder disease or gallstones
  • History of alcohol abuse
  • History of seizures
  • Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid)
  • Psychosis (a mental disease)
  • Respiratory depression or other breathing problems (e.g., hypoxia)
  • Stomach or bowel blockage (e.g., paralytic ileus)
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Severe liver or kidney diseases

Because of drug-drug interactions, certain medicines should not be used along with this medicine. It is always recommended to consult with your doctor if you are in need of some other medications or even any over-the-counter medicine for another health problem in order to avoid unwanted toxic effects.

Besides, the following drug interactions should be kept in mind:

  • Phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamine, neostigmine, sedatives, and hypnotics potentiate the action of oxycodone and other opioids.
  • MAO inhibitors intensify the effect of oxycodone to severe and even fatal events (e.g., anxiety, confusion, respiratory depression, sometimes leading to coma).
  • Oxycodone retards absorption of many orally administered drugs (e.g. mexiletine) by delaying gastric emptying.
  • This drug antagonizes the GI effect of cisapride, domperidone, and metoclopramide.
  • It may produce hyperpyrexia and CNS toxicity with dopaminergic.
  • Also, it may reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.
  • Increased plasma concentrations have been seen with the concurrent use of cimetidine.

Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect, and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Thus, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Besides, caution should be exercised when used in lactating women because studies in breastfeeding women have demonstrated harmful effects to the infants. An alternative to this medication should be prescribed in such circumstances.

3 Proper Usage

To use Dazidox properly, you must follow all instructions given by your doctor. The dosage schedule and the duration of drug therapy should be individualized and determined based on the physician’s advice.

The therapeutic dose may also vary with the patient’s condition or requirement and the strength of the medicine as well; however, different preparations and doses are listed below:

For oral dosage forms (liquid concentrate, solution, or tablets):

  • For moderate to severe pain:
    • Adults—10 to 30 milligrams (mg) every 4 hours as needed. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

For oral dosage form (immediate-release tablets):

  • For moderate to severe pain:
    • Patients who are not taking narcotic medicines:
    • Adults—At first, 5 to 15 milligrams (mg) every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Patients switching from fixed-ratio oral narcotic/non-narcotic combinations:
    • Adults—Your doctor will determine whether or not to continue the non-narcotic pain medicine. Also, the total amount of milligrams (mg) per day will be determined by your doctor and depends on which narcotic you were using. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Patients switching from other narcotic medicines:
    • Adults—The total amount of milligrams (mg) per day will be determined by your doctor and depends on which narcotic you were using. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

For oral dosage form (extended-release tablets):

  • For moderate to severe pain:
    • Patients switching from regular oxycodone forms:
    • Adults—The tablet is given every 12 hours. The total amount of milligrams (mg) per day is the same as the total amount of regular oxycodone that is taken per day. The total amount per day will be divided and given as 2 doses during the day. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children 11 years of age and older—Dose must be determined by your doctor. The patient must already be receiving and tolerating opioids for at least 5 consecutive days with a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent for at least 2 days before taking OxyContin®.
    • Children younger than 11 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Patients switching from other narcotic medicines:
    • Adults—The tablet is given every 12 hours. The total amount of milligrams (mg) per day will be determined by your doctor and depends on which narcotic you were using. The total amount per day will be divided and given as 2 doses during the day. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children 11 years of age and older—Dose must be determined by your doctor. The patient must already be receiving and tolerating opioids for at least 5 consecutive days with a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent for at least 2 days before taking OxyContin®.
    • Children younger than 11 years of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • Patients who are not taking narcotic medicines:
    • Adults—At first, 10 milligrams (mg) every 12 hours. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed.
    • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

This medicine comes with patient information. You should read and follow the instructions carefully before using this medicine. You should not use this drug in larger amounts, more often, or for a longer time than your doctor ordered.

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. But, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule.

Further, it is advised to store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature away from heat, moisture, and direct light. All kinds of medicines should be kept out of the reach of children. However, outdated medicines should be disposed of by an appropriate way.

4 Precautions to Take

Before using Dazidox, there are some precautions you must take. Firstly, regular visits to your doctor are recommended to check that this medicine is working properly or not.

Additionally, the following guidelines should be followed to prevent unwanted complications as well as for the better prognosis of the patients:

Infants and the elderly are more susceptible to the respiratory depressant action of oxycodone. Besides, the use of oxycodone is dangerous in patients with respiratory insufficiency (e.g., emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, cor pulmonale). This drug is contraindicated in patients with a head injury because even therapeutic doses can cause marked respiratory depression.

This medicine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Check with your doctor right away if you have developed rashes, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing and swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine.

Do not use more of this medicine or take it more often than your doctor tells you to. This can be life-threatening. Symptoms of an overdose include extreme dizziness or weakness, slow heartbeat or breathing, seizures, trouble breathing, and cold, clammy skin. Call your doctor right away if you notice these symptoms.

This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, or lightheaded. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.

Using narcotics for a long time can cause severe constipation. To prevent this, your doctor may direct you to take laxatives, drink a lot of fluids, or increase the amount of fiber in your diet. Be sure to follow the directions carefully, because continuing constipation can lead to more serious problems.

Using this medicine while you are pregnant may cause serious unwanted effects in your newborn baby. Tell your doctor right away if you think you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant while using this medicine.

Oxycodone extended-release tablets should not be used if you need pain medicine for just a short time, such as when recovering from surgery. This medicine should not be used to relieve mild pain, or in situations when non-narcotic medication is effective.

When oxycodone is used for a long time, it may become habit-forming, causing mental or physical dependence. Mental dependence (addiction) is not likely to occur when narcotics are used for therapeutic purposes.

Physical dependence may lead to withdrawal side effects if treatment is stopped suddenly. However, severe withdrawal side effects can usually be prevented by gradually reducing the dose over a period of time before treatment is stopped completely.

Do not take other medicines (prescription or nonprescription/over-the-counter medicines) and herbal or vitamin supplements unless they have been discussed with your doctor.

5 Potential Side Effects

As with many medications, there are several potential side effects associated with Dazidox. These side effects usually go away during the treatment episode as your body adjusts to the medicine.

Your healthcare professional may advise you about the ways how to prevent or reduce those unwanted side effects.

Sometimes you may need to consult with the doctor if you notice any of the following toxic effects:

  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Respiratory depression
  • Blurring of vision
  • Urinary retention, especially in elderly male
  • BP may fall, especially in hypovolemic patients
  • Allergic reactions manifesting as urticaria, swelling of lips
  • Sedation
  • Mental clouding
  • Lethargy
  • Tolerance
  • Dependence (psychological and/or physical)
  • Apnea in the newborn – may occur when oxycodone is given to the mother during labor.
  • Acute poisoning – may be accidental, suicidal, or seen in drug abusers. Manifestations are stupor or coma, flaccidity, shallow and occasional breathing, cyanosis, pinpoint pupil, fall in BP, and shock.

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

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