Molypen is considered as an essential trace element which is needed in very small amounts by almost all living organisms. This micronutrient serves mainly as an essential cofactor of enzymes and aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
The main known function of molybdenum in humans is to act as a catalyst for enzymes and to help facilitate the breakdown of certain amino acids in the body.
As humans need very small amounts of molybdenum and that can be easily attained through a healthy diet, molybdenum deficiency is very rare. Thus, molybdenum supplements are rarely needed in humans.
Molybdenum in nutritional supplements is generally found in the form of ammonium molybdate or sodium molybdate.
Multivitamins or mineral supplements containing molybdenum are usually taken by mouth but some patients may need to receive them by injection.
Ammonium molybdate injection is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution which is used as an additive to solutions for total parenteral nutrition (TPN).
Such supplements are usually given to those who cannot get molybdenum in adequate amount in their regular diet or who are in need of more molybdenum.
Ammonium molybdate is considered as a parenteral mineral which is available in the market in solution form.
2 What to Know Before Using
Before using Molypen, you must know all about the risks and complications associated with it. Molypen is needed in very small amount for normal growth and for maintenance of health.
The rich sources of dietary molybdenum include milk, dried beans, peas, lentils, leafy vegetables, almonds, yogurt, nuts and seeds, eggs, liver tomatoes, green soybeans, cottage cheese, carrots, and meats.
The amount of molybdenum in foods may vary depending on the soil in which the food is grown. If you think that you are not getting enough vitamins and/or minerals in your diet, you may choose to take a dietary supplement.
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Molypen is given below:
Infants: (0-6 months): 2 μg
Infants: (7-12 months): 3 μg
Children (1-3 y): 17 μg
Children (4-8): 22 μg
Children (9-13): 34 μg
Adolescents (14-18 years): 43 μg
Adults (19 years and older): 45 μg
Pregnancy and lactation (all ages): 50 μg
Molybdenum is quickly absorbed by the body but the exact mechanism is uncertain. Following absorption from the stomach and small intestine, molybdenum is transported to the liver and to other tissues of the body.
It is carried in the blood in molybdate form that is bound to alpha–macroglobulin. The liver and kidney may store a large amount of molybdenum.
Sometimes the presence of other health disorders affects the beneficial effects of this medicine and even may cause serious complications.
Make sure you mention your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially copper deficiency, renal or hepatic impairment. Molybdenum may worsen the condition in copper-deficient patients.
Liver diseases are responsible for higher blood levels of molybdenum, which may increase the chance of unwanted adverse effects.
Certain drugs should not be used concurrently with such medications. Molybdenum metabolism has been reported to be inversely related to copper, fluoride, tungsten, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus, selenium, methionine, and cysteine.
Thus, it is always recommended to consult with your doctor if you are in need of some drugs for another health problem to ensure safety.
Animal reproduction studies conducted with ammonium molybdate injection have failed to demonstrate fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
There is no evidence in favor of the following fact that ammonium molybdate can affect reproduction capacity.
As molybdenum has the ability to cross the placenta and it may be detected in milk, this injection should not be used in amounts greater than RDA during pregnancy and lactation. But potential benefits may warrant the use of such medications despite potential risks.
To use Molypen properly, you must follow all instructions given by your doctor. Ammonium molybdate is often indicated for use as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions.
Usage of molybdenum in TPN solutions helps to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms. Injectable molybdenum should be administered only by or under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Ammonium molybdate injection provides 25 mcg molybdenum/ml. Adults, who are metabolically stable and receiving TPN may be advised for the additive dosage of molybdenum ranging from 20 to 120 mcg daily.
The additive dosage level for children is determined by a healthcare professional. In an adult, molybdenum deficiency symptoms including retarded growth and reproductive impairments can be reversed by intravenous administration of ammonium molybdate at 163 mcg/day for 21 days without producing any toxicity.
You should take your medicine in time. If you miss any dose of this medicine, you should take it as soon as possible. But if it is time for your next dose, then you should skip the missed dose and go back to your regular treatment schedule.
You should store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature away from heat, moisture, and direct light. All kinds of medicines should be kept out of the reach of children. Outdated medicine must be disposed of by an appropriate way.
4 Precautions to Take
Before using Molypen, there are some precautions you must take. Regular visits are recommended to make sure this medicine is working properly or not. Some important measures should be taken to ensure proper implementation of this drug therapy.
Ammonium molybdate should not be injected undiluted into a peripheral vein because of the potential risk of infusion phlebitis. This injection should not be given without copper supplementation to the patients with copper deficiency.
Since copper and molybdenum are antagonistic to each other, frequent monitoring of blood copper levels should be carried out.
Further, monitoring of sulfur and purine metabolism is suggested as a guideline. Those with hyperuricemia or gout should use such medications cautiously.
As molybdenum is excreted in urine and bile, molybdenum supplements may need to be reduced, or omitted in renal dysfunction and bile duct obstruction. Moreover, parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matters and discoloration prior to administration.
5 Potential Side Effects
Along with the desired beneficial effects, Molypen may cause some unwanted side effects.
Molybdenum compounds are found relatively less responsible for the toxicity symptoms in humans and these symptoms are unlikely to occur at the recommended dose.
Hyperuricemia has been reported in occupationally exposed workers in a copper–molybdenum plant and in those consuming 10-15 mg of molybdenum daily.
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