Swelling is often seen as sausage-shaped protrusion on fingers and toes. Some patients develop deformities in fingers and toes before other joints are affected.
Achilles tendinitis causes pain that is felt at the region where the tendons and ligaments attach to the bones at the back of the heel. In plantar fasciitis, another symptom, the pain is felt in the sole of the foot.
Spondylitis, characterized by inflammation of vertebral joints and also between spine and pelvis, is also caused by psoriatic arthritis.
Psoriatic arthritis is caused by autoimmune condition in which the immune system attack body’s healthy tissues. This leads to inflammation of the joints. The actual cause for the autoimmune response is not known.
A combination of genetic and environmental factors are implied in the abnormal immune response. In some cases, psoriatic arthritis is found to run in families. Certain genetic makeup is also associated with this form of arthritis.
Treatment for psoriatic arthritis helps to control the symptoms and to improve the range of motion of the affected joint. Medications, physical therapy, and surgery are the treatment options available for psoriatic arthritis.
Medications help in reducing pain and inflammation. Acetaminophen is useful in reducing mild to moderate pain. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and naproxen sodium are also recommended to reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis.
Duloxetine, an anti-depressant, is prescribed to alleviate chronic pain.
Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) block abnormal immune function in which the system attacks healthy tissues. Methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine are common DMARDs.
Biologic response modifiers are medications that target the proteins involved in the abnormal immune response.
Immunosuppressants like azathioprine and cyclosporine controls the abnormal functioning of the immune system, one of the causes for the development of psoriatic arthritis.
Tumor necrosis factor –alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors block the action of TNFs, reducing pain, inflammation, and stiffness of joints. Etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab are commonly used TNF-alpha inhibitors.
Corticosteroids suppress the immune system and control symptoms like pain and inflammation. These are usually given as injections in the affected joints.
The damaged part of the joint is removed and replaced with prosthesis in a joint replacement surgery.
A severe, painful disability, called arthritis murilans, is a complication associated with psoriatic arthritis. This condition may destroy the small bones in the fingers, causing deformity. It may also affect the way the person carries out daily activities.
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