Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

1 What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

Bleeding between the brain and surrounding membrane called as arachnoid membrane is called as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bleeding is the result of rupture in abnormally enlarged blood vessel.

Sometimes an abnormal tangle of blood vessel in brain, trauma other events causing brain damage. Subarachnoid bleeding will lead to permanent brain damage if left untreated.

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2 Symptoms

Symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage include sudden severe headache, which is intense in the base of skull.

The following symptoms can be seen during subarachnoid bleeding:

  • neck pain,
  • numbness throughout body,
  • shoulder pain,
  • seizures,
  • confusion,
  • irritability,
  • sensitivity to light,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • decreased vision.

Sudden loss of consciousness quickly occurs.

3 Causes

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is often caused by brain aneurysms, which are anomalies in the arteries of brain the most common being berry aneurysm.

Aneurysms swell up and weaken the wall of artery overtime.

Some of the other causes of subarachnoid hemorrhage include:

  • bleeding disorders,
  • bleeding from arteriovenous malformations,
  • use of blood thinner medications.

A serious injury that can occur in car crash or during slip and fall occasions in old people can also be a cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

4 Making a Diagnosis

Often diagnosed during a physical examination subarachnoid hemorrhages cause stiff neck, and vision problems. This combination is critical for diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

More tests are required to confirm the diagnosis and to note severity of condition.

Imaging tests include:

  • CT (computed tomography) scan- it includes layers of x ray to provide a detailed image of skull and helpful in locating the hemorrhage.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)- it uses electromagnetic waves to determine and predict the picture of brain and also helpful in checking the electrical activity of brain.
  • Cerebral angiography- it includes injection of a radioactive dye intravenously and x ray is used to check if there is any rupture in the blood vessels or not.
  • Transcranial ultrasound- this helps to detect the blood flow in brain.

5 Treatment

Rapid treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage is required to save patient’s life and reduce the damage to brain. Surgery is performed to close the aneurysm and stop future bleeding.

Craniotomy is performed and aneurysm is closed. Craniotomy includes opening of skull to expose the area of involvement. A technique called endovascular coiling can also be used to stop further bleeding.

Doctor might prescribe medications:

  • prevent seizures with phenytoin,
  • blood pressure regulating medications,
  • Prevent artery spams such as nimodipine,
  • anti-anxiety medications with pain killers.

6 Prevention

Early detection is the only known way to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Consult a doctor for early detection of vessel aneurysms and treat them to prevent potentially lethal.

7 Alternative and Homeopathic Remedies

There are no known alternative remedies which can treat subarachnoid hemorrhage exist.

Surgical intervention is required to close the artery and stop bleeding.

If treatment is not taken immediately can lead to fatal complications such as death.

8 Lifestyle and Coping

When diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage, it might be hard to cope and develop a normal lifestyle.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious condition which is fatal. The recovery period is long. Treatment isn't a guarantee.

Some people die even after the most aggressive medical interventions.

The earlier patient seeks medical help the better healing process will be.

9 Risks and Complications

There are several risks and complications associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage can occur at any age. Women are more likely to develop subarachnoid hemorrhage than men.

People with congenital malformations of arteries and people with berry aneurysm are also at risk group for this condition.

Complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage are fatal and even can lead to the death of patient. Due to typical location of subarachnoid hemorrhage it becomes difficult to save patient life.

Coma may develop, loss of consciousness, arrest of heart due to suppression of centers in brain, respiratory arrest and most severe being death of patient.

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