There are various methods: McDonalocedure is most popular. However, some women may be more suitable for Shiradkor procedure-a bit more complicated process.
I know your friend will be careful during this pregnancy: Bedrest and abstaining from sexual intercourse will help.
The cervix is simply sewn closed to maintain the pregnancy.
used in women that have funneling of the lower uterine segment or
subclinical cervical thinning and / or dilation. It does nothing for early
pregnancy losses in first trimester but can be very effective in late first
and early second trimester pregnancies
most common is the McDonald cerclage which is a purse string like stitch to
close off the cervix. The 2nd most common is an abdominal cerclage which is
done abdominally or better said below the bladder. The stitch is usually
removed around 37-38 wks or if labor ensues prior to that time.
A cerclage does not prevent miscarriages that are associated with pain/cramps and bleeding.