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Goiter Causes

  • Deficiency of iodine: The thyroid glands may tend to enlarge in an effort for obtaining more of the iodine thereby leading to goiter. This is basically an essential mineral which is found mostly in the seawater and it is said to play a pivotal role in the production of those thyroid glands. In the developing countries, those individuals who reside mostly in the inland or at the higher elevations are often said to be deficient in iodine hence they develop goiter. The initial deficiency of iodine can worsen by also including food items which are high in hormone inhibiting foods which are broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower.
  • Grave’s disease: Goiter is also said to be caused when the thyroid glands tend to overproduce thyroid hormone thereby leading to hyperthyroidism. This in turn can lead to the swelling of those thyroid glands. In the Grave’s disease, the antibodies which are produced by the immune system basically for attacking the invaders mistakenly tend to attack the thyroid glands itself thereby leading to excess production of thyroxine and this kind of overstimulation then leads to swelling of the thyroid glands.
  • Hashimoto’s disease: The hashimoto’s disease is known to be an autoimmune disease and it is said to be mostly associated with an underactive thyroid also called as hypothyroidism thereby leading to goiter.Instead of causing the thyroid to produce excess hormone, the hashimoto’s disease tends to cause damage to the thyroid glands hence it produces little of the hormone. Thereby sensing a low level of hormone, the pituitary glands start to produce more of the TSH levels for stimulating the thyroid which then leads to enlargement of the thyroid glands causing goiter.
  • Multinodular goiter: This condition is said to involve the development of multiple sold or fluid filled up lumps which are also called as nodules present in the thyroid thereby leading to the overall enlargement of those thyroid glands.
  • Thyroid cancer: The thyroid cancer is not said to be as common as the benign thyroid nodules but it can also lead to the enlargement of those thyroid glands as well as the goiter by extension.
  • Pregnancy: During the pregnancy period, the pregnant woman is known to produce a hormone which is called as Human Chorionic Gonadotropin which again is said to be a contributing factor to the enlargement of those thyroid glands and leading to occurrence of goiter.
  • Inflammation: There are certain inflammatory conditions called as thyroiditis which is also known to cause pain as well as lead to swelling of the thyroid glands. This hormone is also said to contribute in the overproduction or it can be the underproduction of thyroxine.
  • Exposure to radiation:  When an individual is exposed to radiation treatments mostly on the neck and the chest region for managing certain other medical conditions can also lead to occurrence of goiter.
  • Use of certain medicines:  There are certain medicines used for treating another medical condition called as heart drug amiodarone or the psychiatric medicine called as lithium which is also known to cause goiter.
  • There are also certain risk factors which can lead to the occurrence of goiter. Goiter is something which can affect anyone and not necessary those who live in high elevated regions at times goiter can be also present since birth or it may occur in the individual at any time of their life. Few of those risk factors would include the gender of the individual wherein women are prone to goiter and especially women who are above 40 years of age, those who have a family history of autoimmune medical conditions, pregnancy and menopause.