1. Exposure treatment
2. Flooding or
3. Counter-conditioning (Watson, 1924)
4. Relaxation techniques
5. Counter-conditioning by systematic desensitization, (Wolpe 1958).
The above therapies can be done in conjunction with biofeedback instrumentation to ensure that the patient is truly well-relaxed before going the next higher item in the anxiety hierarchy. Several indexes have been used in this adjunctive approach, including pulse rate, respiration rate, and electrodermal responses.