Joseph E. Ronaghan, MD, FACS, FICS
There are both short-term and long-term ill effects from smoking. Your question focuses on short term effects. It has been shown that smokers have higher rates of wound infections, wound healing, as well as higher incidence of healing of surgeon created anastomoses (tubular connections to like kind tubular structures.) That means that if a portion of your intestine was removed and reconnected, you risk serious complications by smoking.
There are many, if not most, surgeons who will not even operate on you for an elective operation, unless you quit. I am one of those surgeons. If it is truly an elective operation whose recovery has been shown to be impacted by tobacco use, I may even ask the patient to do a cotinine saliva test if I suspect they are still smoking.