Generally speaking we want to straighten all the teeth that could benefit from being straighter if we are going through the process of putting braces on. However, if the person only wishes to have their front teeth straightened and the conditions allow for that; Yes only the front teeth will get braces.
Conditions have to allow for few reasons. First of all sometimes in order to move the front teeth around, the back teeth need to be moved in order to make space. Secondly, depending on the particular movements of the front teeth, the back teeth might need be used as anchors during the process. Hope this helps.
My best to you!
William F. Scott IV, DMD
The short answer to your question is most likely no. The reason orthodontists usually put braces on all (most) teeth in the arch is because back teeth serve as anchors for straightening front teeth (where patients usually want their teeth straightened). Saying that, every case is different and its hard to speculate without seeing your teeth/mouth/X-rays.
such as Invisalign or clear correct.
Marc D. Thomas, DDS