Mononucleosis is a common disease that leads to one developing a sore throat, some fever, and lymphocytosis. This disease usually breeds from the Epstein-Barr virus. The symptoms of this disease include headaches, fatigue and malaise within the first five days. The other symptoms that can occur include fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, severe pharyngitis that leads to tonsil swelling, developing early rashes on the body, bilateral oedema on the eyes, swelling of the cervical lymph, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and sometimes jaundice.
This type of disease attacks all the people worldwide and is usually observed more among the children. It especially attacks people between the ages of 15 and 25 years old. This disease takes one to two months’ time to display its symptoms after one has been infected with the virus. This virus takes a long time to get into one's system since it is not highly contagious. After it has been discovered, it also takes a longer time to eradicate it completely. This disease can also be transmitted through saliva and the fluids at the birth canal through the transfer of blood from an individual.
Epithelial cells in the pharynx are the causes of mononucleosis. This virus is usually spread through being exposed to the virus several times. Hence, one gets the disease through pharyngeal fluids. This disease is usually found in the saliva, lymphatics, and blood. This virus gets into the body through the lymphocytes of the CD21 cells in a period of a day, where the antigens virus can be detected in the lymphocyte nucleus.
These signs and symptoms that occur in a person usually come from viral replication, the person’s immune system, and the person’s response to the virus antigens. The lymphocytes that have this virus take it out of the spleen, liver, and the other peripheral parts. When this virus infects the B lymphocytes, it brings out humoral and cellular reaction to this virus. This virus leads to the breakdown of plasma cells and memory B lymphocytes without being helped by the helper cells of the body. This virus can also cause many B lymphocytes to be able to produce plasma cells.
Most antibody-producing plasma cells give out antibodies that are not meant to react with the virus antigens. A part of the plasma cells give out antibodies that react with other animals red blood cells. This humoral immune response helps out in the conducting of serologic tests. During the acute stage of infectious mononucleosis, 20% of the circulating lymphocytes in the body produce the antigens for the virus. This virus is usually recovered in the immune system, not specifically in the blood and is the reason for the rashes that appear on the body when one has the disease.
B lymphocytes that give out the virions that are then subdued by the virus and the infected lymphocytes that give out the virions are the ones that control the spread of the disease. Hence this disease usually spreads with the rise of some viruses. This disease can still remain in humans for up to a year after its treatment.