Anemia is one of the symptoms resulting from gastrointestinal bleeding. Anemia is detected by measuring the hemoglobin levels in blood. Blood tests also assess the functioning of liver. It measures serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and amino transferase levels, all of which are affected in ampullary cancer.
This test is used to check for jaundice caused by obstruction of bile ducts.
Increased levels of certain markers indicate presence of tumor. But, these markers are not specific for ampullary cancer.
Ultrasound, MRI, CT scan, and chest X-ray helps to visualize the internal organs. Ultrasound helps to rule out chance of gallstones that block drainage of bile. It also helps to identify the stage of cancer. CT scans are used to visualize the signs around ampulla of Vater. MRI is the most sensitive imaging technique used to detect ampullary cancer.
This procedure helps to obtain tissue sample for biopsy and also to visualize cancer in the region of ampulla.
In this procedure, parts in and around the ampulla are removed. This includes lower parts of stomach, gall bladder, ending parts of common bile duct, head of pancreas, and upper part of small intestine.
In advanced stages of ampullary cancer, biliary stents are used to remove the obstruction of bile duct. Stents are placed in position through endoscopy or a skin incision.
It is still not clear whether chemotherapy or radiotherapy has significant effect in alleviating the symptoms of ampullary cancer.
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