The body adjusts to low oxygen levels in chronic anemia, and may respond only when anemia becomes severe.
In acute anemia, where anemia develops suddenly, symptoms develop immediately.
The symptoms are often moderately severe, even with small variations in hemoglobin levels.
There are three main causes for anemia:
Rapid blood loss
Decreased or faulty production of red blood cells
Destruction of red blood cells
In certain conditions, loss of blood from the body often exceeds production, resulting in iron deficiency anemia. Rapid blood loss may happen during surgery, childbirth, or accidents. Chronic blood loss may result from stomach ulcers, cancer, and tumors. Heavy bleeding during menstrual periods can also lead to iron deficiency, and then anemia.
Lack of iron in food affects the production of hemoglobin and healthy red blood cells in the body.
Lack of vitamin B-12 and folate in diet also affect the production of red blood cells. Inability to process vitamins in the body may also lead to insufficient production of hemoglobin. This condition is referred to as pernicious anemia.
Diseases that affect bone marrow, the organ that produce red blood cells, result in anemia due to faulty production of blood cells. Cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, and Crohn’s disease are certain conditions that affect the production of red blood cells.
Aplastic anemia, a condition in which the body does not produce enough red blood cells, is caused by infections, certain medications, and toxic chemicals. In sickle cell anemia, the body produces defective hemoglobin, leading to insufficient red blood cells.
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies against body’s own red blood cells and destroys them. Increased destruction of blood cells leads to anemia.
Major risk factors for anemia include diet lacking iron and vitamins, intestinal problems, heavy menstrual bleeding, pregnancy, chronic conditions like cancer and kidney failure, family history, and age.
4 Making a diagnosis
Complete blood test (CBC) is the definitive diagnostic test for anemia.
In CBC, the count of all the blood cells from a sample is taken. The normal value for red blood cells is around 42-50% in men and 35-47% in women.
Normal values of hemoglobin for an adult male is 14-18 grams per deciliter of blood, and 12-16 grams per deciliter in women.
The size and shape of the red blood cells also indicate cell functioning. Additional tests are recommended based on the underlying cause of the condition.
Intravenous fluids are administered to prevent complications associated with anemia.
Some types of anemia are tough to prevent.
Iron deficiency anemia and those caused by vitamin deficiency can be prevented by having a diet rich in iron and vitamins. Iron, folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin C supplementations help in controlling symptoms.
Genetic counseling is helpful to understand the risk of children getting the disease, particularly when there is a family history of the condition.
7 Alternative and Homeopathic Remedies
Several alternative and homeopathic remedies are used for anemia.
and ash gourd
are used in special diet plans for improving iron levels.
Ferrum metallicum and aletris farinosa are homeopathic medicines used to control symptoms of anemia like fatigue and weakness.
China is recommended to treat anemia due to excessive loss of blood.
Natrum mur helps to control weight loss due to anemia.
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